- December 1, 2022
- Posted by: ccmas.admin
- Category: Disciplines
These Core Curriculum Minimum Academic Standards (CCMAS) are designed for the education and training of undergraduate students wishing to obtain first degrees in the different areas of Social Sciences in the Nigerian university system. Presented in this Section are the basic operational elements that serve to define the minimum academic standards required to achieve the cardinal goal of producing graduates in Social Sciences with sufficient academic background and practical exposure to face the challenges of a developing economy in the increasingly globalised world economy.
It is pertinent to note that this CCMAS Document is expected to guide institutions in the design of curricula for their Social Sciences programmes by stipulating the minimum requirements. Institutions are therefore encouraged to take due cognizance of the CCMAS while bringing necessary innovation into the content and delivery of their programmes towards achieving the overall goals of Social Science education and training in the country.
The subject matter of Social Science is the individual behaviour and institutions in society. It involves the study of human behaviour, the environment and its elements, and the interaction among these. Its knowledge and approach are inevitable for improving the quality of human life. The various disciplines in the Social Science study human behaviour from their special standpoint. However, being a dynamic area of study, there are different perspectives which constitute the various disciplines in the Social Science. These include:
- the need to describe, explain, predict and control human behaviour and the socio-cultural environment;
- the need to avoid unnecessary human biases as well as the trial and error approach to social problems through the formulation of appropriate hypotheses and theories of Social Science;
- the need to raise our consciousness in public socio-economic and other national policies;
- the need for critical thinking in critiquing the existing system and its operation in Nigeria and going further to propose alternatives; and
- the need for comparative analysis such that the situation in Nigeria can be compared with other African, and indeed, Third world countries.
However, being a dynamic area of study which evolves with changes in physical and human situations, emerging new areas include: Demography & Social Statistics, International Relations, Criminology and Security Studies, Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution. Some universities who are responding by quickly to their environment also offer combined honours degree programmes. In this revised Social Science CCMAS, new courses are suggested in Petroleum Economics and Policy Studies, Social Work, Social Standards, Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE) as well as in Development Studies.
The content and sequence of the courses are determined by the creativity of the academic staff of the various departments which allow each University, Faculty or Department, to develop the character of its programmes.
Programmes and Degrees
The programmes in Social Sciences cover the following degree areas.
Table 1: 1 List of Programmes and Degrees
|S/N||Programmes||Degree(s) in view|
|1||Criminology and Security Studies||B.Sc|
|2||Demography and Social Statistics||B.Sc|
|6||Peace and Conflict Resolution||B.Sc|
|7||Petroleum Economics and Policy Studies||B.Sc|
|9||Politics, Philosophy and Economics||B.Sc|
Philosophy, Aims and Objectives of Social Sciences
The philosophy underlying the programmes of the Social Sciences is to produce graduates imbued with the ability to understand and make contribution to the development of Nigeria and the global Community. The Social Sciences have the mission to foster an understanding of the rapidly changing world including issues of globalisation and a ‘borderless world’ as well as relationships between various ‘worlds’. This broad objective can be achieved by equipping students with a solid foundation as well as specialized knowledge in a particular discipline; prepare graduates to meet the human resources needs; create in graduates entrepreneurial knowledge; ability to apprehend current changes as well as a sense of public responsibility and a spirit of self-reliance.
Accordingly, Social Sciences training should:
- develop the student’s understanding of social problems at the various levels of the Nigerian and global society;
- develop in the student the ability for objective and critical judgment and to observe, understand, analyse and synthesize socio-economic, political and environmental problems using Social Sciences methods and techniques;
- create an enabling environment for desirable behavioural change which would help the student to develop values that are in consonance with hard work, probity, commitment, discipline and patriotism; and
- enable the graduate of the Social Sciences to fit into various fields of human endeavour both in the private and public sectors of the economy and equip him/her with entrepreneurial skills and a sense of self-reliance.
Basic Admission Requirements and Expected Duration of the Programme(s)
Admission into Social Science programmes in Nigerian Universities is by two modes: The Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) and Direct Entry (DE). The requirements for each are as stated below:
Candidates for admission into the four year degree programme in the Social Science in Nigeria should possess a Senior School Certificate (SSC) or General Certificate of Education of West African Examination Council (WAEC) or National Examination Council (SSC-WAEC/NECO) or their equivalent with at least five credit passes in relevant subjects including Mathematics and English Language at not more than two sitting.
Candidates for Direct Entry admission shall possess five credit passes in the Senior Secondary Certificate, General Certificate of Education, National Examination Council or their equivalent including English and Mathematics of which at least two shall be at the Advanced level or four credit passes of which at least three shall be at the Advanced level provided that such passes are not counted at both levels of the examinations. In some cases, holders of diploma certificate in disciplines related to courses of study desired in the Social Sciences are accepted.
Minimum / Maximum Duration
The minimum duration of Social Sciences programmes is four academic sessions for candidates who enter through the UTME mode. Direct Entry candidates admitted to the 200 level of their programmes will spend a minimum of three academic sessions.
The maximum length of time allowed to obtain an honours degree in the Faculty shall be twelve semesters for the 4-year degree programme and ten semesters for students admitted directly into the 200 level.
A student shall qualify for the award of a Social Science degree when he/she has:
- completed and passed the prescribed number of courses including all compulsory courses specified by the University/Department, not less than 120 units for UTME and 90 for DE;
- completed and met the standards for all required and elective courses; and
- obtained a minimum Cumulative Grade Point Average CGPA of 1.00 and above.
Credits are weights attached to a course. One credit is equivalent to one hour per week per semester of 15 weeks of lectures or three hours of laboratory/studio/workshop work per week per semester of 15 weeks.
Definition of Course System
This should be understood to mean a quantitative system of organization of the curriculum in which subject areas are broken down into unit courses which are examinable and for which students earn credit(s) if passed. The courses are arranged in progressive order of complexity or in levels of academic progress. Level 1 courses are for example 100 and 101; Level II courses are for example 200 and 202. The second aspect of the system is that courses are assigned weights allied to Units.
Consist of specified number of student-teacher contact hours per week per semester. Units are used in two complementary ways: one, as a measure of course weighting, and the other, as an indicator of student workload. As a measure of course weighting for each Unit course (e.g. HIS 105, ZOO 203, ARCH 504), the credit unit to be earned for satisfactorily completing the course is specified; e.g. a 2-credit unit course may mean two 1-hour lecture per week per semester or one 1-hour lecture plus 3-hour practical per week per semester.
As a measure of workload, “One Credit Unit” means one hour of lecture or one hour of tutorial per week per semester. For other forms of teaching requiring student teacher contact, the following equivalents may apply: two hours of seminar, three hours of laboratory or field work, Clinical practice/practicum, studio practice or stadium sporting activity, six hours of teaching practice; four weeks of industrial attachment where applicable.
Normally, in Course Credit System, courses are mounted all year round, thus enabling students to participate in examinations in which they are unsuccessful or unable to participate on account of ill health or for other genuine reasons. In such a system, no special provisions are made for re-sit examinations.
The minimum number of credit units for the award of a degree is 120 units, subject to the usual Department and Faculty requirements. A student shall therefore qualify for the award of a degree when he has met the conditions.
The minimum credit load per semester is 15 credit units. For the purpose of calculating a student’s cumulative GPA(CGPA) in order to determine the class of Degree to be awarded, grades obtained in all the courses whether compulsory or optional and whether passed or failed must be included in the computation.
Even when a student repeats the same course once or more before passing it or substitutes another course for a failed optional course, grades scored at each and all attempts shall be included in the computation of the GPA. Pre – requisite courses must be taken and passed before a particular course at a higher level.
Grading of Courses
Grading of courses shall be done by a combination of percentage marks and letter grades translated into a graduated system of Grade Point as shown in Table 1.2.
Table 1. 2 Grade Point System
|Mark %||Letter Grade||Grade Point|
|70 – 100||A||5|
|60 – 69||B||4|
|50 – 59||C||3|
|45 – 49||D||2|
|40 – 44||E||1|
|0 – 39||F||0|
Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average
For the purpose of determining a student’s standing at the end of every semester, the Grade Point Average (GPA) system shall be used. The GPA is computed by dividing the total number of Units x Grade Point (TUGP) by the total number of units (TNU) for all the courses taken in the semester as illustrated in Table 1.3.
The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) over a period of semesters is calculated in the same manner as the GPA by using the grade points of all the courses taken during the period.
Table 1:3 Calculation of GPA or CGPA
|Course||Units||Grade Point||Units x Grade Point (UGP)|
|C1||U1||GP1||U1 x GP1|
|C2||U2||GP2||U2 x GP2|
|Ci||Ui||GPi||Ui x GPi|
|CN||UN||GPN||UN x GPN|
Classes of degree are to be awarded depending on the cumulative GPA obtained. The classes of degrees that may be awarded are First Class Honours, Second Class Honours (Upper Division), Second Class Honours (Lower Division) and Third Class Honours (see Table 1.4).
Table 1.4: Degree Classification
|CGPA||Class of Degree|
|4.50 – 5.00||First Class Honours|
|3.50 – 4.49||Second Class Honours (Upper Division)|
|2.40 – 3.49||Second Class Honours (Lower Division)|
|1.50 – 2.39||Third Class Honours|
|1.00 – 1.49||Pass|
Students who transfer from other universities shall be credited with only those courses deemed relevant to the programmes, which they have already passed prior to their transfer. Such students shall however be required to pass the minimum number of units specified for graduation for the number of sessions he/she has spent in the Faculty; provided that no student shall spend less than two sessions (4 semesters) in order to earn a degree. Students who transfer from another programme in the Faculty or other faculties for any approved reason shall be credited with those units passed that are within the curriculum of the programme to which he/she has transferred. Appropriate decisions on transfer cases shall be subjected to the approval of Senate on the recommendation of the Faculty.
Probation is a status granted to a student whose academic performance fall below an acceptable standard. A student whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular year of study, earns a period of probation for one academic session. A student on probation is allowed to register for courses at the next higher level in addition to his/her probation level courses provided that:
- the regulation in respect of student work-load is complied with; and
- the pre-requisite courses for the higher level courses have been passed.
A candidate whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular period of probation should be required to withdraw from the University. Where possible, consideration may be given to a student withdrawn from a programme of study for transfer to any other programme within the same university.
Subject to the conditions for withdrawal and probation, a student may be allowed to repeat the failed course Unit(s) at the next available opportunity, provided that the total number of credit units carried during that semester does not exceed 24, and the Grade Points earned at all attempts shall count towards the CGPA.
Modes of Student Assessment
All courses taken must be evaluated and a final grade given at the end of the semester. To arrive at the final grade, the evaluation must be a continuous process consisting of some or all of the following where applicable:
- Continuous Assessment
Continuous assessment shall be done through essays and tests. Scores from continuous assessment shall normally constitute 30-40 per cent of the full marks for courses which are primarily theoretical.
In addition to continuous assessment, final examinations should normally be given for every course at the end of each semester. All courses shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks comprising:
Final Examination: 60% – 70%
Continuous assessment (Quizzes, Homework, Tests and Practical): 30% – 40%
External Examination System
The involvement of external examiners from other universities is a crucial quality assurance requirement for all courses in Nigerian University System. In this regard, external examiner should go beyond mere moderation of examination questions to examining of examination papers to scope and depth of examination questions vis a vis the curricular expectation.
Students’ Evaluation of Courses
There should be an established mechanism to enable students to evaluate courses delivered to them at the end of each semester. This should be an integral component of the course credit system to serve as an opportunity for feedback on the effectiveness of course delivery. Such an evaluation which should be undertaken by students at the end of each course, should capture, among others:
- improvement in the effectiveness of course delivery;
- continual update of lecture materials to incorporate emerging new concepts;
- effective usage of teaching aids and tools to maximize impact of knowledge on students;
- improvement in students’ performance through effective delivery of tutorials, timely in; and
- presentation of continuous assessment and high-quality examination.
It is very important that students’ evaluation of courses be administered fairly and transparently through the use of well-designed questionnaires. The completed questionnaires should be professionally analyzed and results discussed with the course lecturer(s) towards improvement in course delivery in all its ramifications.