- December 1, 2022
- Posted by: ccmas.admin
- Category: Disciplines
The Core Curriculum and Minimum Academic Standards (CCMAS) are designed for the education and training of undergraduate students wishing to obtain first degrees in the different areas of Science in Nigerian University System. Presented in this section are the basic operational elements that serve to define the minimum academic standards required to achieve the cardinal goal of producing graduates in Science with sufficient academic background to face the challenges of a developing economy in an increasingly globalized economy.
It is pertinent to note that this CCMAS document is expected to guide institutions in the design of curricula for their Science programmes by stipulating the minimum requirements. Being such, institutions are encouraged to take due cognizance of the CCMAS while bringing necessary innovation to the content and delivery of their programmes towards achieving the overall goal of Science education and training in the country.
Programmes and Degrees
Presented in Table 1 is a list of programmes and degrees covered in this CCMAS document. The list covers existing programmes being currently run in various faculties/schools/colleges of science in Nigeria as well as some new programmes in line with current global trends in required skill acquisition in the sciences. The contents of many courses of existing programmes have also been modified in consonance with modern trends in the requisite knowledge and skills of science graduates.
Table 1: List of Programmes and Degrees
|Degree in View
|Brewing Science and Technology
|Environmental Management and Toxicology
|Physics with Electronics
|Science Laboratory Technology
Philosophy, Aims and Objectives of Science
The philosophy of the Science discipline is to train graduates who will apply scientific approach through verifiable and reproducible methodologies to solving developmental needs of the society.
The main objectives of Science Discipline are to:
- provide students with scientific knowledge and skills from which they can proceed to further studies in specialized and/or multi- disciplinary areas;
- provide students with a broad and balanced foundation of scientific knowledge and practical skills as may be applicable in their different programmes;
- develop in students the ability to apply scientific knowledge and skills to solving theoretical and practical problems;
- develop in students, a range of transferable skills that are of value in any employment and society they might find themselves;
- provide, through training and orientation, an appreciation of the rewards inherent in inter- and multi- disciplinary approach to the solution of complex life problems; and
- engender in students an appreciation of the fact that no nation can develop without science and its application.
Regime of Subject Knowledge
The programmes and their curricula should give students comprehensive education and training that equip them with knowledge, decision-making and problem-solving skills in a variety of areas.
Competencies and Skills
The general skills should include competencies in computer literacy, quantitative skills, communication skills, interpersonal skills, organization skills, Information Technology skill and Entrepreneurship skills.
Administrative and Management related cognitive abilities and skills required are as follows:
- ability to recognize and analyze management and administrative problems and evolve strategies for their solutions;
- ability to recognize and implement good management and administrative policies.
- computational and data processing skills, relating to administrative, financial and manpower data; and
- ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of essential facts, concepts and principles, and apply theories to Administration and Management. Acquire knowledge in problem solving through Industrial attachment, Industrial Seminars and Student Apprenticeship Scheme.
Graduates of these programmes should:
- understand the social-cultural environment in which they find themselves and how such environment conditions behaviour;
- be able to understand, explain, predict and influence human behaviour in work organizations;
- relate the knowledge of human behaviour to the ethics of their relevant professions; and
- understand the relationship between culture and behaviour and why a unimodal system of behaviour may not work.
Admission Requirements and Expected Duration of the Programmes
The entry requirements shall be at least passes at Credit level at Senior Certificate (SSC) or its equivalents in five subjects at not more than two sittings. Such subjects must include English Language, Mathematics and three other relevant subjects. In addition, an acceptable pass in the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination in (UTME) is required for admission into 100 Level.
Candidates with at least two A level passes in relevant subjects at the GCE Advanced Level/ IJMB/ JUPEB or equivalent, may be considered for admission into 200 Level, provided they satisfy the ‘O’ level qualifications above.
A student will not be allowed to exceed an additional 50 per cent of the duration of the programme if he/she fails to graduate within the minimum number of years.
Four (4) academic sessions or eight (8) semesters
Three academic sessions or six (6) semesters. In general, no student will be allowed to exceed an additional 50% of the normal duration of the programme.
Expected duration for UTME candidates shall be 4 years and students are required to pass a minimum of 120 units, while for Direct entry students, expected duration for graduation shall be 3 years and would be expected to pass a minimum of 90 units which must include all compulsory courses. Students in 5 years programmes are expected to pass a minimum of 150 units which must include all compulsory courses.
Credits are weights attached to a course. One credit is equivalent to one hour per week per semester of 15 weeks of lectures or three hours of laboratory/studio/workshop work per week per semester of 15 weeks.
Definition of Course System
This should be understood to mean a quantitative system of organization of the curriculum in which subject areas are broken down into unit courses which are examinable and for which students earn credit(s) if passed. The courses are arranged in progressive order of complexity or in levels of academic progress. Level 1 courses are for example 100 and 101; Level II courses are for example 200 and 202. The second aspect of the system is that courses are assigned weights allied to Units.
Consist of specified number of student-teacher contact hours per week per semester. Units are used in two complementary ways: one, as a measure of course weighting, and the other, as an indicator of student workload. As a measure of course weighting for each Unit course (e.g. HIS 105, ZOO 203, ARCH 504), the credit unit to be earned for satisfactorily completing the course is specified; e.g. a 2-credit unit course may mean two 1-hour lecture per week per semester or one 1-hour lecture plus 3-hour practical per week per semester.
As a measure of workload, “One Credit Unit” means one hour of lecture or one hour of tutorial per week per semester. For other forms of teaching requiring student teacher contact, the following equivalents may apply: two hours of seminar, three hours of laboratory or field work, Clinical practice/practicum, studio practice or stadium sporting activity, six hours of teaching practice; four weeks of industrial attachment where applicable.
Normally, in Course Credit System, courses are mounted all year round, thus enabling students to participate in examinations in which they are unsuccessful or unable to participate on account of ill health or for other genuine reasons. In such a system, no special provisions are made for re-sit examinations.
The minimum number of credit units for the award of a degree is 120 units, subject to the usual Department and Faculty requirements. A student shall therefore qualify for the award of a degree when he has met the conditions.
The minimum credit load per semester is 15 credit units. For the purpose of calculating a student’s cumulative GPA(CGPA) in order to determine the class of Degree to be awarded, grades obtained in all the courses whether compulsory or optional and whether passed or failed must be included in the computation.
Even when a student repeats the same course once or more before passing it or substitutes another course for a failed optional course, grades scored at each and all attempts shall be included in the computation of the GPA. Pre – requisite courses must be taken and passed before a particular course at a higher level.
Grading of Courses
Grading of courses shall be done by a combination of percentage marks and letter grades translated into a graduated system of Grade Point as shown in Table 1.2.
Table 1. 2 Grade Point System
|70 – 100
|60 – 69
|50 – 59
|45 – 49
|40 – 44
Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average
For the purpose of determining a student’s standing at the end of every semester, the Grade Point Average (GPA) system shall be used. The GPA is computed by dividing the total number of Units x Grade Point (TUGP) by the total number of units (TNU) for all the courses taken in the semester as illustrated in Table 1.3.
The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) over a period of semesters is calculated in the same manner as the GPA by using the grade points of all the courses taken during the period.
Table 1.3: Calculation of GPA or CGPA
|Units x Grade Point (UGP)
|U1 x GP1
|U2 x GP2
|Ui x GPi
|UN x GPN
Classes of degree are to be awarded depending on the cumulative GPA obtained. The classes of degrees that may be awarded are First Class Honours, Second Class Honours (Upper Division), Second Class Honours (Lower Division) and Third Class Honours (see Table 1.4).
Table 1.4: Degree Classification
|Class of Degree
|4.50 – 5.00
|First Class Honours
|3.50 – 4.49
|Second Class Honours (Upper Division)
|2.40 – 3.49
|Second Class Honours (Lower Division)
|1.50 – 2.39
|Third Class Honours
|1.00 – 1.49
Probation is a status granted to a student whose academic performance fall below an acceptable standard. A student whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular year of study, earns a period of probation for one academic session.
A candidate whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular period of probation should be required to withdraw from the University. Where possible, consideration may be given to a student withdrawn from a programme of study for transfer to any other programme within the same university.
Subject to the conditions for withdrawal and probation, a student may be allowed to repeat the failed course Unit(s) at the next available opportunity, provided that the total number of credit units carried during that semester does not exceed 24, and the Grade Points earned at all attempts shall count towards the CGPA.
Modes of Student Assessment
All courses taken must be evaluated and a final grade given at the end of the semester. To arrive at the final grade, the evaluation must be a continuous process consisting of some or all of the following where applicable:
- Continuous Assessment
Continuous assessment shall be done through essays and tests. Scores from continuous assessment shall normally constitute 30-40 per cent of the full marks for courses which are primarily theoretical.
In addition to continuous assessment, final examinations should normally be given for every course at the end of each semester. All courses shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks comprising:
Final Examination: 60% – 70%
Continuous assessment (Quizzes, Homework, Tests and Practical): 30% – 40%
External Examiner System
The involvement of external examiners from other universities is a crucial quality assurance requirement for all courses in Nigerian University System. In this regard, external examiner should go beyond mere moderation of examination questions to examining of examination papers to scope and depth of examination questions vis a vis the curricular expectation.
Students’ Evaluation of Courses
There should be an established mechanism to enable students to evaluate courses delivered to them at the end of each semester. This should be an integral component of the course credit system to serve as an opportunity for feedback on the effectiveness of course delivery. Such an evaluation which should be undertaken by students at the end of each course, should capture, among others:
- improvement in the effectiveness of course delivery;
- continual update of lecture materials to incorporate emerging new concepts;
- effective usage of teaching aids and tools to maximize impact of knowledge on students;
- improvement in students’ performance through effective delivery of tutorials, timely in; and
- presentation of continuous assessment and high-quality examination.
It is very important that students’ evaluation of courses be administered fairly and transparently through the use of well-designed questionnaires. The completed questionnaires should be professionally analyzed and results discussed with the course lecturer(s) towards improvement in course delivery in all its ramifications.
SIWES Rating and Assessment
All students taking any degree in the Sciences must undergo industrial training to earn a minimum of 3 credit units. The minimum duration of the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) should be 12 weeks. Students should be assessed using the Logbook, a report and a Seminar.