- December 1, 2022
- Posted by: ccmas.admin
- Category: Disciplines
These Core Curriculum and Minimum Academic Standards (CCMAS) are designed for the education and training of undergraduate students wishing to obtain first degree in Law in the Nigerian university system. Presented in this Section are the basic operational elements that serve to define the core curriculum and minimum academic standards required to achieve the cardinal goal of producing graduates in Law with sufficient academic background and professional exposure to face the challenges of a developing economy in the increasingly globalised world economy.
It is pertinent to note that this CCMAS Document is expected to guide institutions in the design of curricula for their Law programmes by stipulating the minimum requirements. Being such, institutions are encouraged to take due cognizance of the CCMAS while bringing necessary innovation into the content and delivery of their programmes towards achieving the overall goals of legal education and training in the country.
Programme and Degree
Presented in Table 1.1 are the programmes and the degrees in view covered in this current CCMAS Document. An attempt has been made to cover not only the programme being currently run in the Faculty of Law, but, also, proposed new programmes in response to the local and global dynamics of the requisite knowledge, skills and professional competences of Law graduates. Overall, it is expected to serve the needs of existing faculties contemplating minor or major programme review and also new institutions seeking to chart a new path away from the existing programmes in the system.
Table 1.1 List of Programme and Degree
|S/N||Programme||Degree in View|
|2||Common and Islamic Law||LL. B Common & Islamic Law (Combined)|
All Faculties of Law in Nigerian Universities will offer courses and programmes leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws (LL.B) Honours and/or Bachelor of Laws (LL.B) Honours, Common & Islamic Law (Combined)
A law faculty is expected to have a minimum of two (2) departments and may wish to develop departments to a maximum of six (6).
The six departments a faculty of law may establish are:
- Department of Private and Property Law (PPL).
- Department of Jurisprudence and International Law (JIL).
- Department of Commercial and Industrial Law (CIL).
- Department of Public Law (PUL)
- Department of Clinical Legal Education and Training (CLE).
- Department of Islamic and/or Customary Law (ICL).
Philosophy and Fundamental Principles of the Discipline
The Law Discipline is established to contribute significantly to the enrichment and enhancement of legal study and practice. It is designed to provide legal education within the realm of a dynamic socio – political environment that encompasses the national and global trends and challenges. The main focus of the Law discipline is to create an environment that encourages intellectual rigour, analytical and critical engagement as well as profound ethical standards. The discipline will produce law graduates who can compete actively in legal, social, economic and political developments on a global scale.
Aims and Objectives of the Law Discipline
The main aims and objectives of the Discipline should be:
- To ensure that Law is taught as it exists at any given time, and that every Law student adopts a comparative approach to legal studies bearing in mind that there are many systems of Law (Common Law, Statutory Law, Customary Law and Islamic Law) currently in operation.
- To ensure that students are imbued with a general knowledge and understanding of Law.
- To develop in students the intellectual ability to apply research, knowledge and analytical skills to solving theoretical and practical legal problems.
- To acquaint students with principles of the judicial process and legal systems, as well as their interaction with socio-economic frameworks.
- To provide, through training and orientation, an appreciation of the growing relevance of inter- and multi-disciplinary approach to the solution of complex life problems and the role of law therein.
The entry requirements shall be through any of the two under-listed options:
- Unified Tertiary Matriculation (UTME) mode
The minimum academic requirement is credit level passes in five (5) subjects at the Senior School Certificate (SSC)/O’Level in nationally recognised examination, including English Language and Literature in English obtained at not more than two sittings; such a candidate must in addition have an acceptable pass in the UTME. For students in the Common and Islamic Law Programme, they are to in addition to the above requirements, have credit pass in Islamic Studies obtained in not more than two sittings.
- Direct Entry Mode
- A two or three-year Diploma certificate plus credit passes in five (5) papers, including English Language and Literature in English at the Senior Secondary Certificate (SSC) or General Certificate of Education ‘Ordinary’ Level or their equivalent; or
- Three (3) papers at Principal or Advanced Level in Higher School Certificate or GCE together with credit in English Language and English Literature in the S.S.S. Certificate Examination or GCE ‘O’ Level or their equivalent, or
- Two (2) papers at Principal or Advanced Level in HSC or GCE plus credit in three (3) other papers (including English Language and English Literature) in S.S.S. Certificate Examination or GCE ‘O’ Level or their equivalent.
- A good honours degree.
It should be noted that for students seeking direct entry into Common and Islamic Law programme, they are to in addition to the above requirements in (b) (i)-(iii) have credit pass in Islamic Studies obtained in S.S.S. Certificate Examination or GCE ‘O’ Level or their equivalent.
Duration of the Law Programmes.
A standard 5-year programme for students with Senior School Certificate, General Certificate of Education “Ordinary” Level, or their equivalents is to be offered. However, Direct Entry candidates will be permitted to join in year two of the programme. However, this category of students must take any 100-level course missed.
Law graduates are expected to develop a wide range of skills and abilities. These are divided into three broad categories:
- Analytical skills
Graduates of law are expected to develop high cognitive abilities and skills. With the growing complexities in society law graduates are expected to identify related socioeconomic challenges and demonstrate ability/competence in proffering practical relevant solutions.
- Research skills
Graduates of the programme are also expected to exhibit commendable research skills, with significant ability to find, consult, and analyse legal texts and other materials.
- Advocacy skills
As ministers in the temple of justice, graduates of law are expected to demonstrate commitment to societal harmony and the administration of justice at all levels utilizing their analytical and advocacy skills.
Graduates of law are expected to have the ability to apply their knowledge and skills in solving academic and practical social problems.
A student shall qualify for the award of a degree when the student has completed and passed all the Courses registered for, including all compulsory courses and such elective /optional courses as may be specified by the university/faculty; obtained a minimum Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) specified by the university but not less than 1.00 and earned the minimum credit units of not less than 150 for those that entered UTME and 120 through Direct Entry for the Law programme. For the Common and Islamic Law programme, a candidate must obtain a minimum Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) specified by the university but not less than 1.00 and earned the minimum credit units of not less than 180 for those that entered UTME and 150 through Direct Entry.
The Law programmes are to be run on a Course System, under which courses are divided into course packages that will be taught within a semester system, with examinations at the end of each semester. Weights in form of units will be attached to each course, with one Unit equivalent to one hour of lectures. One Unit is equivalent to one hour per week per semester of 15 weeks of lectures or 3 hours per week of practical/moot court work per semester of 15 weeks. It is assumed that the Nigerian university system shall continue to operate an academic year of two semesters with a minimum of 15 weeks of lectures/tutorials/clinic per semester.
Courses are to be numbered based on a progressive system reflecting the applicable session and semester within the 5 – year programme. For ease of reference and identification, course numbers may be prefixed by a three – character programme/subject code, usually reflecting the department that offers the particular course. Thus, the course code is in the form: DEP LNJ (where the three letters DEP identify the programme, ‘L’ in LNJ represents the level of the course (1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 for all undergraduate courses) and NJ is a two – digit numbering of courses. Thus, for example, PUL 409 is a 400 – Level (4th year) course with number 09 offered by the Department of Public Law.
Grading of Courses
Grading of courses shall be done by a combination of percentage marks and letter grades translated into a graduated system of Grade Points as shown in Table 1.2.
Grade Point System
|Mark %||Letter Grade||Grade Point|
|70 – 100||A||5.0|
|60 – 69||B||4.0|
|50 – 59||C||3.0|
|45 – 49||D||2.0|
|40 – 44||E||1.0|
|0 — 39||F||0|
Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average
For the purpose of determining a student’s standing at the end of every semester, the Grade Point Average (GPA) system shall be used. The GPA is computed by dividing the total number of Units multiplied by the Grade Point (TUGP) by the total number of units (TNU) for all the courses taken in the semester as illustrated in Table 1.3 below.
The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) over a period of semesters is calculated in the same manner as the GPA by using the grade points of all the courses taken during the period, which is the student’s cumulative time in the Faculty.
Calculation of GPA or CGPA
|Course||Units||Grade Point||Units x Grade Point (UGP)|
|C1||U1||GP1||U1 x GP1|
|C2||U2||GP2||U2 x GP2|
|Ci||Ui||GPi||Ui x GPi|
|CN||UN||GPN||UN x GPN|
The following regulations shall govern the conditions for the award of an honours
- Candidates admitted through the UTME mode shall have registered for at least 150 units of courses during the 5 – year degree law programme.
- Candidates admitted through the Direct entry mode shall have registered for at least 120 units of courses during the 4 – year degree law programme
- Candidates admitted through the UTME mode shall have registered for at least 180 units of courses during the 5 – year degree Common and Islamic law programme.
- Candidates admitted through the Direct entry mode shall have registered for at least 150 units of courses during the 4 – year degree Common and Islamic law programme
- Candidates must have registered and passed all the compulsory courses specified for the law programme.
The determination of the class of degree shall be based on the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) earned at the end of the programme. The CGPA shall be used in the determination of the class of degree as summarized in Table 1.4. It is important to note that the CGPA shall be calculated and expressed correct to two decimal places.
|CUMULATIVE GRADE POINT AVERAGE (CGPA)||CLASS OF DEGREE|
|4.50 – 5.00
3.50 – 4.49
2.40 – 3.49
1.50 – 2.39
1.00 – 1.49
|1st Class Honours
2nd Class Honours (Upper Division)
2nd Class Honours (Lower Division)
3rd Class Honours
The maximum length of time allowed for obtaining an honours degree in the Faculty shall be fourteen semesters for the 5 – year degree programme and twelve semesters for students admitted directly into the 200 level. Students requiring more than the maximum period of fourteen and twelve semesters for UTME and Direct entry students can be considered for the award of a third-class degree on the recommendation of the Faculty Board and the approval of Senate.
Students who transfer from other universities should have sat and passed all courses transferred from the previous university or should have attained the minimum CGPA of 1.49. Such students shall however be required to spend not less than three sessions (6 semesters) in order to earn a degree. Students who transfer from another programme in the Faculty or other faculties for any approved reason shall be credited with those units passed that are within the curriculum of the programme to which they have transferred. Appropriate decisions on transfer cases shall be subjected to the approval of Senate on the recommendation of the Faculty.
A student whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.0 at the end of a particular year of study, earns a period of probation for one academic session. A student on probation is allowed to register for courses at the next higher level in addition to his/her probation level courses provided that the regulation in respect of student work – load is complied with.
A candidate whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.0 at the end of a particular year of probation should be required to withdraw from the University. However, in order to minimize waste of human resources, consideration should be given to withdrawal from programme of study and possible transfer to other programmes within the same University.
The timetable for courses shall be designed to make provision for tutorials of at least one hour for every four hours of lecture. Thus a 3 – unit course of 45 hours per semester should attract 15 hours of tutorials.
Techniques of Student Assessment
Continuous assessment shall be done through essays, tests, and participatory exercises. Scores from continuous assessment shall normally be a minimum of 30 per cent of the full marks for courses which are primarily theoretical.
In addition to continuous assessment, final examinations should normally be given for every course at the end of each semester. All courses shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks comprising:
Final Examination: 70% – 60%
Continuous assessment (Quizzes, Homework, Tests): 30% – 40%
External Examiner System
The involvement of external examiners from other universities is a crucial quality assurance requirement for all courses in Nigerian University System. In this regard, external examiner should go beyond mere moderation of examination questions to examining of examination papers to scope and depth of examination questions vis-a-vis the curricular expectation.
Student Evaluation of Courses
There should be an established mechanism to enable students to evaluate courses delivered to them at the end of each semester. This should be an integral component of the course credit system to serve as an opportunity for feedback on the effectiveness of course delivery.
Such an evaluation which should be undertaken by students at the end of each course, should capture, among others:
- Improvement in the effectiveness of course delivery.
- Continual update of lecture materials to incorporate emerging new concepts.
- Effective usage of teaching aids and tools to maximize impact of knowledge on students and
- Improvement in students’ performance through effective delivery of tutorials, timely in presentation of continuous assessment and high-quality examination.
It is very important that students’ evaluation of courses be administered fairly and transparently through the use of well-designed questionnaires. The completed questionnaires should be professionally analysed and results discussed with the course lecturer(s) towards improvement in course delivery in all its ramifications.
Maintenance of Curricular Relevance
Using the CCMAS as guide, the curriculum in each discipline shall be reviewed from time to time to determine the continued relevance and fitness of purpose. The NUC, in its role as the national quality assurance agency on university programmes, shall subject the benchmark statements for review periodically. It is recommended that universities review their programme, at least once in five years, using the current quality assurance benchmark statements. A committee of staff competent to carry out an effective review shall conduct each curriculum review. The review shall include an assessment as to whether the goals and objectives of the programme as formulated are still relevant in dynamic professional and social contexts. Reviews shall endeavour to incorporate the opinions of relevant stakeholders such as students, staff, external examiners, employers, professional bodies, policy makers etc. Each curriculum so revised shall be subjected to consideration and approval at the levels of Department, Faculty/Colleges, and Senate in the University. Specifically, a good review should examine the curriculum and resources in accordance with the following criteria:
- Re – assessment/re – formulation of goals and objectives of the programme in relation to the needs of the learners and the market requirements, taking into account the broader aspects of the discipline.
- The market demands of the graduates, in terms of skills needed to function as competitive professionals in the current labour market on a global scale.
- Relevance of the current content in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes being taught/developed, and how these meet the needs of the present and future requirements of the clientele.
- How the teaching and learning methods meet or fall short of current and future standards of comparable programmes.
- The quality of teaching and learning material used.
- Outcomes of learning in terms of success, experience of learners (pass rate, knowledge and skills acquisition, professional capability and integrity) as contributed by the programme.
Performance Evaluation Criteria
The accreditation of the Law programme will serve as a system of ensuring a level of performance, integrity and quality that ensures the relevance of the programme to the broader educational and professional community, the students, and employers of labour.
The objectives of the accreditation exercise are to:
- Ensure that at least the provisions of the minimum academic benchmark statements are attained, maintained and enhanced.
- Assure employers and other members of the community that graduates of these institutions have attained an acceptable level of competence in their areas of specialisation.
- Certify to the international community that the programmes offered in these universities are of high standard and that their graduates are proficient for employment and for further studies.