Allied Health Sciences
- November 30, 2022
- Posted by: ccmas.admin
- Category: Disciplines
The Core Curriculum and Minimum Academic Standards (CCMAS) are designed for the education and training of undergraduate students wishing to obtain first degrees in the different areas of Allied Health Sciences in Nigerian University System. Presented in this section are the basic operational elements that serve to define the minimum academic standards required to achieve the cardinal goal of producing graduates in Allied Health Sciences with sufficient academic background to face the challenges of a developing economy in an increasingly globalized economy.
It is pertinent to note that this CCMAS document is expected to guide institutions in the design of curricula for their Allied Health Sciences programmes by stipulating the minimum requirements. Being such, institutions are encouraged to take due cognizance of the CCMAS while bringing necessary innovation to the content and delivery of their programmes towards achieving the overall goal of Allied Health Sciences education and training in the country.
Programmes and Degrees
Table 1.5 : List of Programmes and Degrees
|S/N||Programme||Degree(s) in view|
|2.||Complementary and Alternative Medicine||B.Sc. CAM|
|3.||Dental Technology||B.Sc. DNT|
|4.||Dental Therapy||B. DT|
|5.||Environmental Health Science||B.EHS|
|6.||Health Care Administration and Hospital Management||B.Sc. HAM|
|7.||Health Information Management||B.HIM|
|8.||Information Technology and Heath informatics||B.Sc. ITH|
|9.||Medical Laboratory Science||BMLS|
|11.||Human Nutrition and Dietetics||B.Sc.|
|16.||Prosthetics and Orthotics||B.Sc. P&O|
Philosophy, Aims and Objectives of Allied Health Sciences
The broad philosophy of training in the Allied Health Sciences is to:
- provide sound academic and professional background for the production of Allied Health Science professionals who would be capable of working anywhere in Nigeria and the world;
- train Allied Health Science professionals who would meet global standards and who could undertake further training towards specialisation; and
- train professionals with sufficient management ability to play leadership role in the health sector and sound entrepreneurship skills in establishing self, and employing others, in training and general practice of the profession as applicable within enabling laws.
The main objectives of the bachelor/doctor honours Degree programmes in Allied Health Sciences are to:
- provide students with a broad and balanced foundation knowledge and practical skills to enable them perform effectively in clinical diagnostic, preventive, rehabilitative services, therapeutic, public health, academics and quality assurance; and function independently or in collaboration with other members of the health team in the care of individuals and groups at all levels of health care;
- involve the students in an intellectually stimulating and satisfying experience of learning, studying, research, creativity and innovation;
- inculcate in students a sense of enthusiasm for the programme; an appreciation of its application in different contexts (in areas such as health services, food and beverages, pharmaceutical industries, utility departments such as water corporations; waste management and research institutions, and many other);
- develop in students, the ability to apply knowledge and skills from their respective programmes to the solution of theoretical and practical problems in the health sector;
- provide students with a knowledge and skills base from which they can proceed to further studies in specialised areas involving health sciences; and
- empower graduates of Allied Health Sciences with skills that will enable them engage in entrepreneurship and income yielding ventures.
Graduates of the Allied Health Sciences will demonstrate;
Regime of Subject Knowledge
- Understanding of the concepts, theories, and principles related to their subject areas
- Ability to apply requisite knowledge and understanding to develop creative solutions to qualitative and quantitative problems in the health care system.
- Understanding of community orientation through aligning organisational priorities with the values and needs of the community, including cultural values
- Knowledge and ability to search and retrieve information and materials related to professional and practice issues
- Ability to develop, analyse, interprete and evaluate results of health related research and the use of administrative and clinical information technology in decision making and performance improvement
- Capacity for continuing self development and further learning for effective professional practice.(CPD)
Competencies and Skills
- Effective communication skills (art of language, verbal, non verbal, media communication) and ability to successfully lead and facilitate group activities
- Ability and skills to prepare and make cogent scientific presentations to different audiences
- Influence and impact skills demonstrated by the ability to persuade, convince and influence individuals and groups for support on a position, project or issues of importance in the health sector
- Interpersonal skills, that relates to the ability to interact with others and to engage in team-work, ability to understand other people, especially consumers of health care for harmony.
- Management and organizational skills typified by the ability to plan and implement staff development practices, efficient and effective modes of working and other management practices that represent best practices to optimize work output.
- Ability to evaluate own desires and prospects for a career as an entrepreneur and to develop meaningful professional direction after graduation.
- Ability to recognise the uniqueness and importance of individuals especially patients in health situations.
- Professionalism consistently exhibited by ethical behaviour, sound professional
- practices, social accountability and the desire to act in a way that is consistent with one’s values.
- Conduct that comply with the legal and regulatory requirements of healthcare
- professionals and which are not detrimental to the safety, health and wellbeing of patients.
- Ability to establish, and sustain inter and intra professional relationships and collaborative team work where health members view one another with respect and
It is essential that the procedure used for students’ assessment should correspond to the knowledge, abilities and skills that are to be developed through their degree programme. These should be based on the following:
- written examinations;
- clinical/Practical examination;
- laboratory reports/records;
- problem-solving exercises;
- oral presentations; and
- project work and researches.
Additional assessment methods may include
- Essay assignments
- Laboratory exercises
- Seminars and Tutorials (Literature surveys and evaluation)
- Collaborative project work
- Presentations/Illustrations on project work reports/displays.
- Reports on external/field trips/laboratory postings as appropriate
The additional methods listed could be used as continuous assessment that should contribute to the final score (30/40) as applicable to different universities.
Admission Requirements and Duration of the Programmes
There are two different pathways by which candidates can be admitted into programmes in the discipline: the Unified Tertiary Matriculation (UTME) and Direct Entry. To be admitted into the Allied Health Sciences programmes the candidate must meet these entry requirements.
Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) Mode
Minimum of five credit level passes including English Language, Mathematics, Biology, Physics and Chemistry at O’level or SSCE in not more than two sittings in addition to other requirements by specific programme with acceptable level of pass in the UTME conducted by the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board(JAMB).
Direct Entry Mode
First degree in relevant discipline, A’ level in relevant science subjects at not less than B grade
in addition to other requirements by the specific programme.
Duration of the Programme
The minimum duration of programmes for Allied Health Sciences is five academic session or 10 consecutively-run semesters for candidates who enter through the UTME mode. Direct Entry candidates admitted to the 200 level of their programmes will spend a minimum of four academic sessions or eight (8) consecutively-run semesters. However, there are programmes run for four years whose duration should be eight (8) semesters for UTME or six (6) semesters for Direct Entry.
The duration for Doctor of Physiotherapy and Doctor of Optometory degrees is six (6) years for UTME mode and five (5) years for Direct Entry.
A student will not be allowed to exceed an additional 50 per cent of the duration of the programme if he/she fails to graduate within the minimum number of years.
The minimum number of credit units for the award of a degree is 120 units (four years), 150 units (five years) and 180 units (six years), subject to the usual Department and Faculty requirements and duration of study. A student shall therefore qualify for the award of a degree when he has met the conditions.
The minimum credit load per semester is 15 credit units.
For the purpose of calculating a student’s cumulative GPA(CGPA) in order to determine the class of Degree to be awarded, grades obtained in all the courses either compulsory or optional and whether passed or failed must be included in the computation.
Even when a student repeats the same course once or more before passing it or substitutes another course for a failed optional course, grades scored at each and all attempts shall be included in the computation of the GPA. Pre – requisite courses must be taken and passed before a particular course at a higher level.
General Definition of Common Terms and Principles Governing the Course Unit System and Graduation
Course Unit System
All programmes in the Nigerian University System (NUS) shall be run on a modularised system, commonly referred to as Course Unit System. All courses should therefore be sub-divided into more or less self-sufficient and logically consistent packages that are taught within a semester and examined at the end of that particular semester.
Credits are weights attached to a course. One credit is equivalent to one hour per week per semester of 15 weeks of lectures or three hours of laboratory/studio/ workshop work per week per semester of 15 weeks. In addition to the current 15 weeks semester system, universities should be encouraged to inaugurate a blended system which is based partly on physical contacts and partly using virtual or online platforms.
Definition of Course Unit System
This should be understood to mean a quantitative system of organisation of the curriculum in which subject areas are broken down into unit courses which are examinable and for which students earn credit(s) if passed. The courses are arranged in progressive order of complexity or in levels of academic progress such as Level or year I courses are 100, 101 and many others and Level II or year II courses are 200, 202. The second aspect of the system is that courses are assigned weights allied to Units.
Consist of specified number of student-teacher contact hours per week per semester. Units are used in two complementary ways: one, as a measure of course weighting, and the other, as an indicator of student work load. As a measure of course weighting for each Unit course such as HIS 105, ZOO 203, ARCH 504, the credit unit to be earned for satisfactorily completing the course is specified; such as a 2-credit unit course may mean two 1-hour lecture per week per semester or one 1-hour lecture plus 3-hour practical per week per semester.
As a measure of work load, “One Credit Unit” means one hour of lecture or one hour of tutorial per week per semester. For other forms of teaching requiring student teacher contact, the following equivalents may apply: two hours of seminar: three hours of laboratory or field work, Clinical practice/practicum, studio practice or stadium sporting activity, six hours of teaching practice; four weeks of industrial attachment where applicable.
Normally, in Course Credit System, courses are mounted all year round, thus enabling students to participate in examinations in which they are unsuccessful or unable to participate on account of ill health or for other genuine reasons. In such a system, no special provisions are made for re-sit examinations.
Grading of Courses
Grading of courses shall be done by a combination of percentage marks and letter grades translated into a graduated system of Grade Point as shown in Table 1.6:
Grade Point System
|Mark %||Letter Grade||Grade Point|
|70 – 100||A||5.0|
|60 – 69||B||4.0|
|50 – 59||C||3.0|
|45 – 49||D||2.0|
|40 – 44||E||1.0|
|0 – 39||F||0|
For the purpose of determining a student’s standing at the end of every semester, the Grade Point Average (GPA) system shall be used. The GPA is computed by dividing the total number of Units x Grade Point (TUGP) by the total number of units (TNU) for all the courses taken in the semester as illustrated in Table 1.7.
The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) over a period of semesters is calculated in the same manner as the GPA by using the grade points of all the courses taken during the period.
Calculation of GPA or CGPA
|Course||Units||Grade Point||Units x Grade Point (UGP)|
|C1||U1||GP1||U1 x GP1|
|C2||U2||GP2||U2 x GP2|
|Ci||Ui||GPi||Ui x GPi|
|CN||UN||GPN||UN x GPN|
The determination of the class of degree shall be based on the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) earned at the end of the programme. The CGPA shall be used in the determination of the class of degree as summarised in Table 1.8. It is important to note that the CGPA shall be calculated and expressed correct to two decimal places.
|CGPA||Class of Degree|
|4.50 – 5.00||First Class Honours|
|3.50 – 4.49||Second Class Honours (Upper Division)|
|2.40 – 3.49||Second Class Honours (Lower Division)|
|1.50 – 2.49||Third Class Honours|
|1.00 – 1.49||Pass|
Unclassified Degree Categories
|Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)||Category Of Degree|
|2.4 – 5.00||Pass|
Probation is a status granted to a student whose academic performance falls below an acceptable standard. A student whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular year of study, earns a period of probation for one academic session. For unclassified degree, a student with CGPA less than 2.40 in a semester earns probation.
A candidate whose Cumulative Grade Point Average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular period of probation should be required to withdraw from the University. For unclassified degree, a student with CGPA below 2.40 for four consecutive semesters of probation should be required to withdraw from the programme. Where possible, consideration may be given to a student withdrawn from a programme of study for transfer to any other programme within the same university.
Subject to the conditions for withdrawal and probation, a student may be allowed to repeat the failed course unit(s) at the next available opportunity, provided that the total number of credit units carried during that semester does not exceed 24, and the Grade Points earned at all attempts shall count towards the CGPA.
All courses taken must be evaluated and a final grade given at the end of the semester. To arrive at the final grade, the evaluation must be a continuous process consisting of some or all of the following where applicable:
Continuous assessment shall be done through essays and tests. Scores from continuous assessment shall normally constitute 30-40 per cent of the full marks for courses which are primarily theoretical.
For courses which are partly practical and partly theoretical, scores from continuous assessment may constitute 40% of the final marks.
For courses that are entirely practical, continuous assessment shall be based on a student’s practical work or reports and shall constitute 100% of the final marks.
In addition to continuous assessment, final examinations should normally be given for every course at the end of each semester. All courses shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks comprising:
Final Examination: 60% – 70%
Continuous assessment (Quizzes, Homework, Tests and Practical): 30% – 40%
The involvement of external examiners from other universities is a crucial quality assurance requirements for all courses in Nigerian University System. In this regard, external examiner should go beyond mere moderation of examination questions to examining of examination papers to scope and depth of examination questions vis a vis the curricular expectation.
There should be a mandatory 6 months uninterrupted SIWES training at the 300- or 400-level during which students can gain work experience in laboratories, hospitals or tertiary institutions in fields relevant to the course and or job market. For professional courses, the specific requirements of the appropriate regulatory body should be met.
There should be an established mechanism to enable students to evaluate courses delivered to them at the end of each semester. This should be an integral component of the course credit system to serve as an opportunity for feedback on the effectiveness of course delivery. Such an evaluation which should be undertaken by students at the end of each course, should capture, among others:
- improvement in the effectiveness of course delivery;
- continual update of lecture materials to incorporate emerging new concepts;
- effective usage of teaching aids and tools to maximize impact of knowledge on students;
- improvement in students’ performance through effective delivery of tutorials, timely in; and
- presentation of continuous assessment and high-quality examination.
It is very important that students’ evaluation of courses be administered fairly and transparently through the use of well-designed questionnaires. The completed questionnaires should be professionally analyzed and results discussed with the course lecturer(s) towards improvement in course delivery in all its ramifications.